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Category Details
Category Name
Technical
Category Created
Mon, 2nd Jul 2007
Last Article Update
Mon, 31st Jan 2011
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   Technical

Can Ace Glass certify volumetric ware or serialize glassware? 

 
Yes, Ace can either certify class A volumetric ware, or set up special certification on most labware for a fee. We can also serialize glassware for you.
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Can I get different size and number of necks on a flask? 

Yes, absolutely! Send your request to design@aceglass.com with a sketch and number/size and placement of the joints. We will be happy to quote you.

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General Information on Bearings & Stirring Shafts 

General Information on Bearings & Stirring Shafts

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How do I free a frozen stopcock or glass joint? 

 
Unsticking glass to glass joints and stopcocks

If a freezer is available, place the part inside for a brief period of time. Then use gloves and gently twist apart.
 
If a freezer is not convenient, use a hair dryer or a similar type heat gun to gently heat the area. Again, wear gloves and gently twist apart.

If you are fortunate enough to have a glassblower on site, let them dislodge the joint or stopcock.

Best recommendation for prevention: use stopcock grease or use PTFE sleeves for joints. You might also consider using PTFE stoppers or PTFE hollow stoppers instead of glass stoppers.

To unstick PTFE stopcocks

Simply put the part in a freezer overnight and gently twist apart.
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How do I sterilize/clean my glassware? 

Borosilicate lab glassware can be sterilized or autoclaved by dry heat or in a steam autoclave. Some people do a chemical sterilization also. DO NOT ABRADE OR SCRATCH GLASS.
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How large can you make your fritted discs? 

The largest fritted disc O.D. is 150mm. The highest porosity is 174 microns. The thickest disc would be in the 12-15mm range. We can also make custom sizes. See pore sizes and cross reference on page 291 of our General Labware Catalog.

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I see a condensor in the catalog with a certain size joint, can I get different size joints? 

Yes. Send a drawing or sketch to design@aceglass.com with your requirements. Or fill out the form in the Custom/OEM section and e-mail or fax your request into us. We will be happy to quote you.

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Is Ace Glass labware made from Pyrex? 

Ace Glass products are made from 33 expansion borosilicate glass. Ace uses tubing and rod from Pyrex or Simax , as well as Schott Duran glass.

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Is there a listing of replacement o-rings for Ace Glass items? 

 Yes. See the table on our O-Ring Compatibility chart, which is attached to this FAQ. Most Ace products come with FETFE O-rings as standard.

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Photochemistry Technical Information 

Photochemistry Technical Information

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What are good cleaning techniques for laboratory glassware? 

Suggestions for cleaning laboratory glassware

 

Introduction

Laboratory procedures require exact methods and should include good glassware cleaning to insure excellent lab results. In all instances labware should be physically clean, including both chemical residue free and grease free, and in many cases even be sterile. All class A glassware that is used in precise measuring of liquids should have fully wettable surfaces.  A good test is to use distilled water and see if the water wets all the inner surfaces equally. Grease or residues will not only contaminate the reaction and test results but will also alter the measurement of the liquids.

 

Good cleaning practices should also be accompanied by good inspection of the glass surfaces for chips, cracks or abrasions which will cause mechanical failure.

 

Cleaning

Always wash glass labware immediately after use. If a thorough cleaning is not immediately possible, always allow the glassware to soak. If not cleaned immediately some residues may be impossible to remove.

 

Most new glass is slightly alkaline and should be washed upon receipt and generally can be soaked in a 1% HCL or HNO3 solution before wash and DI rinse.

 

Never soak for long periods in strong alkaline solutions as it will damage the glass.

 

Always follow up a soap or acid wash with a good DI water rinse.

 

Always use soft brushes with a wooden or soft plastic handle to avoid abrasion. Do not use wire brushes or brushes with a wire core as it can abrade the glass.

 

Glass cleaners

Alconox is the best as it’s not abrasive. In fact they have a full line of detergents for soaking, hand washing and automatic washers. A detergent such as a non-abrasive dishwasher soap will also work well. Always use soft brushes. Always rinse glass well and do a final DI rinse. If you need to do an acid wash, always rinse the soap off the glass completely or it may cause a reaction and leave a film on the glass. There are many lab detergents available commercially such as; Mallinckrodt’s KleanAR and Chem-Solv. Texwipe and EM Science also make good cleaning detergents

 

Chromic Acid or Chromerge

A great cleaner and also removes organic residues. Use gloves and well ventilate the area when using chromic acid as it is a carcinogen and very corrosive. Make sure metal clamps or flanges are removed.  It is best to fill the vessel or soak the item in the solution for a short time in a plastic tub so that you can contain the wash material, then rinse immediately several times before proceeding to a detergent wash. Make sure the residual chromic acid is diluted after use and disposed of properly and according to your local or company regulations.

 

Occasionally stronger acid washes are necessary for certain types of precipitates or residues. It is best to keep these very dilute and be used in an area where there is good ventilation and make sure you contain the residual acid and dissolved material for proper disposal. This method should only be used when absolutely necessary. Disposal of seriously stained glass maybe a less troublesome and less expensive course of action than using strong acid washes.

 

One other caution is that strong acid or Chromerge type washes may damage the graduation markings.

 

Removal of Grease

Grease is best removed by boiling the glass in a weak solution of sodium carbonate. Acetone or any other organic solvent can be used also, followed by several water and DI water rinses.

 

Other stains

For permanganate stains use a mixture of equal 3% sulfuric acid and 3% hydrogen peroxide.

 

For Iron stains use a solution containing one part hydrochloric acid and one part water.

 

For bacteriological contamination glassware should be soaked in a disinfectant solution and then steam autoclaved then followed by a suitable washing and rinsing.

 

Caution: Make sure you refer to MSDS sheets for the cleaning solutions and the materials that were in the glassware to insure that there won’t be any adverse reactions from the combination of the materials.

 

Ultrasonic Cleaners

Ultrasonics is a good method of cleaning glassware. Ultrasonic cleaners that are heated will be the best and generally with a mild detergent they will clean most residues off of glassware. We typically clean all glass in our factory both during and after the fabrication process in heated ultrasonic cleaners.

 

Rinsing

Glassware should always have a water rinse after any cleaning procedure followed by a DI rinse. It is best to give smaller pieces such as test tubes a soaking rinse followed by a DI soaking rinse. Glass pipettes are best soaked in a suitable pipette washer and washed and given both a water rinse and DI soaking rinse.

 

Drying

Oven drying at 100° C is best for all glassware. If not convenient, rack drying will work.

 

Steam Autoclaving or Sterilizing

 

Proper protocol for steam autoclaving of borosilicate glassware is 15-20 minutes at 100-120° C. Always leave closures off or loose during autoclaving.

 

Inspection after cleaning

 

Always inspect all glassware before steam autoclaving for cracks, chips or damage. The autoclave procedure will cause glassware to break if already damaged.

 

Remember – All labware is generally borosilicate glass, especially if it’s made in the USA. The suggestions herein refer to borosilicate labware only. Bottles are generally NOT borosilicate glass and are made from soda lime or soft glass. Bottles do not have the temperature range or autoclave range of borosilicate glass. Please refer to cleaning procedures for these containers from the manufacturer. Do not mix bottles and labware in the same washes, heat drying and especially autoclaving procedures.

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What are is the porosity range for Ace Fritted filter ware? 

 
See the table on page 10 of our General Labware Catalog for information and cross reference to Corning and Kimble frit sizes and porosities.
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What are the common voltages on Ace equipment products? 

 
Please refer to each product’s specifications in the catalog. Normally, our products for domestic use are 120VAC and 50/60Hz. Wattages differ by product type. Ace Temperature Controllers are 15amps max. Some products, like Photochem, are 220V.
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What are the typical temperature ratings on lab glassware? 

 
Borosilicate glass not only has good temperature resistance, but good thermal shock resistance as well. Borosilicate temperatures at atmospheric pressure are up to 500°C for the strain point, while the softening point is over 800°C. Maximum thermal shock resistance is 160°C. Borosilicate glass can easily handle most lab temperatures, and can handle 400°C for short-term service, typically 200-230°C for normal, standard use service. Note that "short-term" in this case means "minutes", not hours. Glass that is exposed to maximum temperatures for long periods, or exposed repeatedly to high temperatures, should either be discarded or re-annealed regularly or it will fail. "Thermal shock" refers to a rapid change from cold to very hot temperatures, or vice-versa, and this will cause fractures.

Soft glass or soda lime bottles have an upper temperature limit of 200°C, but have very little thermal shock resistance and can break easily when taken from hot to cold temperatures rapidly. In fact, they can fracture if taken from sterilization to room temperature too quickly.
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What does Class A, Type 1 glass refer to? 

 
Type 1, Class A glass is from the U.S. Pharmacopeia, (USP) and European Pharmacopeia (EP) standards and refers to borosilicate, 33 expansion glass used primarily for containers and vials. 33 expansion, borosilicate glass also meets the U.S. Federal spec DD-G-541b and ASTM E-438 type glass spec.
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What does fire-polish mean? 

 
Fire polishing is a technique employed in glass fabricating. When a glass rod or tube is cut, it leaves a rough, sharp finish. When a flame is applied to reach the softening point, it seals or “polishes” the end to a smooth, glassy finish or “polish,” thus the term "fire polish". The end of a piece of glass can be ground to a finish or “flame” or fire-polished.
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What does hard glass and soft glass mean? 

 
“Hard-glass” is an acronym for borosilicate glass, like Pyrex or Kimax. “Soft-glass” is an acronym for soda-lime glass, or a higher expansion type glass, (88-92 COE). Lab glass is generally made from “hard-glass”, (borosilicate). Bottles are generally made from “soft-glass,” or soda-lime glass.
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What is the difference between borosilicate glass and quartz? 

There are many differences between borosilicate glass and quartz, either pure- or synthetic-fused silica types. The main differences are the percentage of compounds and the percentage of silica or SiO2 in the glass. Borosilicate is usually in the 80% range, while quartz is over 99%. Quartz is also capable of handling much higher temperatures up to 1,100° C. Quartz is typically used for high temperature applications, or where optical quality or dielectric properties are critical. Impurities in borosilicate glass are measured in percent; impurities in quartz are measured in PPM.

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What is the temperature limit for Quartz? 

 
Clear fused quartz or synthetic fused silica have an upper temperature limit of 900° C for continuous use and  1,100° C for limited use.
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What is the typical thickness of Ace Fritted discs? 

 
Please refer to the chart on page 294 of our General Labware Catalog, part no 7176, for the thickness by size.
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What pressure can borosilicate lab glass handle? 

The real pressure ratings depend on the wall thickness of the piece and the temperature as well. Most standard lab glass products, at room temperature, can take pressure up to 25-30 PSI. Also, be sure there are no scratches in the glass, as they will weaken the piece, which could cause it to break under pressure. Some glass vessels have very little or NO pressure rating. Most flasks or beakers are 5-15 psi maximum. Contact us 1-800-223-4524 or at support@aceglass for exact information regarding your application. You can also refer to the nomogram in the Technical Data Tables section of this support module of our website.

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What pressures can the fritted discs take? 

 
Please see the formula on page 291 of our general catalog. Typically, depending on size and pore size, pressures range from 2-3 psi up to 15 psi. Contact us at support@aceglass for specifics for your application.
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Where can I find information on extractables in lab glass ware? 

The basic data is listed in our Tech Support Section under raw glass data.

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Where can I find information regarding o-ring compatibility? 

See the O-Ring Reference Chart attached to this question.

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Where can I find information regarding plastic compatibility? 

  See the tables in our Tech Support Section. Also, see the Ace General Labware Catalog, page 411.
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